Google’s Pathways AI architecture, also called the PaLM algorithm, is a big step into the next generation of language models. A language model is a probability distribution over a word sequence. It gives the probability of the next word just by analyzing the previous data.
Pathways Language Model
In 2021, Google announced its next-generation architecture called Pathways. According to Google’s AI blog, Pathways is a new way of understanding AI which addresses many of the shortcomings of the existing systems. Pathways can handle multiple tasks simultaneously, learn new jobs quickly and give valuable insights.
On a similar term, Google has now introduced a 540-billion parameter; dense decoder-only Transformer model trained system called PaLM. PaLM was evaluated on several language understandings and tasks, resulting in excellent performances. It also unlocks new capabilities in many of the functions.
What Makes Google PaLM Unique?
PaLM is better than the current models, and in certain aspects, it outperforms the human benchmarks. When tested, PaLM was better at translating other languages to English. It is a significant improvement and shows why it’s better than the other models. Can find some of the reasons which make PaLM unique are:
1. Ability to Reason
One of the best things about PaLM is its incredible performance while handling arithmetic and common sense reasoning tasks.
2. Generating Explanation
PaLM can generate explanations that make it more advanced and show its explanatory capabilities. On being tested, it successfully explained some jokes correctly.
3. Inference Chaining
Inference chaining uses artificial intelligence to apply logical rules and get new insights from the already known facts. When tested, PaLM correctly joined all the information and created a correct answer.
Next Generation Language Model
From the above points, it’s clear that PaLM will set a pathway for a next-generation search engine. In other words, this search engine will be able to answer complex questions by analyzing all the sources and knowledge on the internet. However, PaLM is only the first step towards having a next-generation search engine, and it is not the final word on AI and searches.
According to a researcher, PaLM will set up a next-generation large-scale, modularized system with vast generalization capabilities across multiple modalities. Generalization capability in machine learning means the ability of that language to solve a task for which it has not been trained.
Some Risks and Ethical Arguments Against the Model
The internet is a source of many toxic contents. According to a research in 2021, researchers found that language models can promote harms such as :
- Discrimination against a particular community or group.
- It can spread misinformation which can lead to violence or arguments.
- It might promote some malicious uses too.
- Furthermore, it can spread information hazard, which is some accurate information that can harm people.
The researchers also expressed how challenging it can be to filter out these toxic elements from the model. So we can conclude that PaLM is the pathway to the next generation of language modeling, but the main concern is how to stop the harmful spread of toxic information.